Defects in a material cause temperature radiation to pass through the material at varying rates, and these differences are picked up by the IR camera. In this way, IRNDT can detect defects under the surface of a material such as cracks, voids, and impurities. Surface defects can also be identified like cracks, uneven mixtures, undercoating rust, and impurities. Beyond material defects, irNDT can be used for semi-conductor applications to detect current leakage, shorts, faults, and shunts. It can also be useful to visualize and measure stress on cyclically loaded materials.