• Penetrant Testing (PT) – Liquid Penetrant testing is used to locate discontinuities open to the surface of a part when a low viscosity (highly fluid) liquid (penetrant) is applied to the surface of a part, it will penetrate into fissures and voids open to the surface. Once the excess penetrant is removed, the penetrant trapped in those voids will flow back out, creating an indication that can be evaluated and judged against a code or specification for compliance or as to the effect it will have on the services life of the part.
• Magnetic-Particle Testing (MT) – Magnetic particle testing uses one or more magnetic fields to locate surface and near-surface discontinuities in ferromagnetic materials.
• Positive Material Identification (PMI) – PMI is the analysis of a metal or alloy with the use of a handheld X-Ray fluorescent (XRF) instrument to establish the composition by reading the quantities by percentage of its constituent elements by exposing the Atoms to a beam of X-rays. The atoms of the part absorb energy from the X-rays, becoming temporarily excited and then emit secondary X-rays. Each chemical element emits X-rays at a unique energy.
• Ultrasonic Testing (UT) – UT testing is when ultra-high frequency sound is introduced into the part being inspected and if the sound hits a material with a different acoustic impedance, some of the sound will reflect back to the sending unit and can be presented on a visual display. For thickness UT, the air at the backwall, or inside, of test part is the reflector. Any internal reflectors, such as lamination or pitting, can also reflect the sound wave back to the sending unit.
• Visual Testing (VT) – VT is the most commonly used test method in the industry. VT requires that the inspector look at the surface of the part being inspected for a visual observation of the surface to evaluate the presence of surface discontinuities or conditions that do not follow procedures, codes or specifications.
• Brinell Hardness Testing (BHT) – BHT is a quantitative method of testing the hardness of a material or weld by physically indenting the material and comparing the size of the indention to that of a twin indention of a known material hardness. It is measured in hardness brinell.
• Vacuum Box – Vacuum box testing is used mostly for tank floors by creating a vacuum in a portable box with a soapy substance applied to the material and welding. Any pinholes or through-wall defects will allow air to seep through creating bubbles on the surface at the discontinuity that can be visually interpreted.
• Borescope – Borescopes cover a broad spectrum of devices, hard tubes up to minute fiber optics, used to see inside a piece. This form of remote visual testing is used for piping, turbines, engines and a vast variety of items that require a detailed view of the internal surface and condition to aid in evaluation of the parts performance and remaining service life.
• Magnetic Flux Leakage (MFL) – Tank Floors – MFL is a quick method to inspect tank floors, compared to UT coverage, using a powerful magnet to magnetize the conductive material under examination (usually steel), for magnetic saturation. Where there are defects, such as material loss or corrosion, the magnetic field leaks from the steel and the MFL probes detect the leakage field which can be characterized by percentage loss and top or bottom side of part. This usually requires UT thickness follow-up to prove the actual remaining wall thickness.
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